On description of contracts and agreements in the context of SOA

Laima Paliulionienė


The issue of making contracts between services in Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) arises naturally, because in real life services are subjects for negotiation and contracting. The notion of contract in SOA is rather misleading, because usually means just technical specification – input and output parameters, pre- and postconditions. However, there are also other aspects of contract. Service Level Agreements (SLAs) often are used together with technical contract. SLAs describes the level of service expected by a customer from a supplier, laying out the metrics by which that service is measured, the remedies or penalties in case the agreed-upon levels are not achieved. The paper aim to clear up the notions of contract and agreement in SOA, discusses the properties of languages that are used to specify contacts and agreements, paying special attention to their legal aspects and comparing contract features in WS-Agreement ir WSLA.


Andrieux, Alain; Czajkowski, Karl; Dan, Asit; Keahey, Kate; Ludwig, Heiko; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Pruyne, Jim; Rofrano, John; Tuecke, Steve; Xu, Ming (2007). Web Service Agreement Specification (WS-Agreement). Open Grid Forum. [Accessed 20 May 2013]. Available from: http://www.ogf.org/documents/GFD.107.pdf.

Beugnard, Antoine; Jezequel, Jean-Marc; Plouzeau, Noël; Watkins, Damien (1999). “Making components contract aware,” Computer, 32(7): 38–45.

Blokdijk, Gerard (2008). Service Level Agreement SLA: 100 Success Secrets : Covering SLA, Service Level Agreements, Service Level Management Topics and Much More. Emereo Publishing. 176 p. ISBN 0980471613.

Bratanis, Konstantinos; Dranidis, Dimitris; Simons, Anthony J. H. (2010). “Towards run-time monitoring of web services conformance to business-level agreements,” in: TAIC PART’10 Proceedings of the 5th international academic and industrial conference on Testing - practice and research techniques. Springer-Verlag, 203–206.

Duan, Yucong (2012). “A Survey on Service Contract,” in: 2012 13th ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2012). IEEE CS Press, 805–810.

Erl, Thomas (2005). Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): Concepts, Technology, and Design. Prentice Hall. 792 p. ISBN 0-13-185858-0.

Erl, Thomas; Carlyle, Benjamin; Pautasso, Cesare; Balasubramanian, Raj (2012). SOA with REST: Principles, Patterns & Constraints for Building Enterprise Solutions with REST. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: The Prentice Hall Service Technology Series from Thomas Erl. 577 p. ISBN 0137012519 (978-0-13-701251-0).

Farlex (2013). “Contract,” in: The Free Dictionary by Farlex. [Accessed 20 May 2013]. Available from: http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/contract.

Keller, Alexander; Ludwig, Heiko (2003). “The WSLA Framework: Specifying and Monitoring Service Level Agreements for Web Services,” Journal of Network and Systems Management, 11(1): 57–81.

Ludwig, Heiko; Keller, Alexander; Dan, Asit; King, Richard P; Franck, Richard (2003). Web Service Level Agreement (WSLA) Language Specification. IBM Corporation. [Accessed 20 May 2013]. Available from: http://www.research.ibm.com/people/a/akeller/Data/WSLASpecV1-20030128.pdf.

Microsoft (2013). “Endpoints: Addresses, Bindings, and Contracts,” in: Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). [Accessed 20 May 2013]. Available from: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms733107.aspx.

OASIS (2002). Collaboration-Protocol Profile and Agreement Specification. OASIS. [Accessed 20 May 2013]. Available from: https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/download.php/204/ebcpp-2.0.pdf.

OASIS (2006). Reference Model for Service Oriented Architecture 1.0. OASIS. [Accessed 20 May 2013]. Available from: http://docs.oasis-open.org/soa-rm/v1.0/soa-rm.html.

Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders P. (2008). “Classification of SOA Contract Specification Languages,” in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Web Services ICWS 2008. IEEE Computer Society Press, 433–440.

Open Group (2010). “SOA Ontology Technical Standard: Service, ServiceContract, and ServiceInterface,” in: The Open Group SOA Source Book. [Accessed 21 May 2013]. Available from: http://www.opengroup.org/soa/source-book/ontology/service.htm.

Raines, Geoffrey (2009). Cloud Computing and SOA. Available from: http://www.mitre.org/work/tech_papers/tech_papers_09/09_0743/09_0743.pdf.

Reynolds, Antony; Wright, Matt (2010). Oracle SOA Suite 11g R1 Developer’s Guide (Google eBook). Packt Publishing Ltd. 720 p. ISBN 1849680191.

Tosic, V; Pagurek, B (2005). “On comprehensive contractual descriptions of Web services,” in: 2005 IEEE International Conference on eTechnology eCommerce and eService. IEEE, 444–449.

Trappler, Thomas (2010). “If It’s in the Cloud, Get It on Paper: Cloud Computing Contract Issues,” in: EDUCAUSE Quarterly. [Accessed 20 May 2013]. Available from: http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/if-its-cloud-get-it-paper-cloud-computing-contract-issues.

W3C (2004). Web Service Architecture. W3C Working Group Note 11 February 2004. [Accessed 20 May 2013]. Available from: http://www.w3.org/TR/ws-arch/.

Waeldrich, Oliver; Battré, Dominic; Brazier, Francis; Clark, Kassidy; Oey, Michel; Papaspyrou, Alexander; Wieder, Philipp; Ziegler, Wolfgang (2011). “WS-Agreement Negotiation Version 1.0,” in: Open Grid Forum. [Accessed 20 May 2013]. Available from: http://www.gridforum.org/Public_Comment_Docs/Documents/2011-03/WS-Agreement-Negotiation+v1.0.pdf.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

eISSN: 2029-9966